7th Science Rocks!

Notes for the Unit!

Genetics & Heredity Unit!

 Sexual Vs Asexual Reproduction:

(create a Venn Diagram  for these notes— WordPress will not allow the transfer of  notes as a picture)

Sexual Reproduction

*2 parents
*2 sex cells = male and female
               sperm & egg
                 pollen  & egg
*offspring may appear different than parents
*combination of traits from parents
*larger gene pool
*more complex organisms
*multicellular organisms


Asexual Reproduction

*1 parent

*Cell Division = fission , mitosis

*offspring is a copy of the parent

*regeneration is a type of asexual reproduction

*unicellular organisms


Lilies: Flower structures and pollen!  Check out this website that shows much of what you should have observed with the flower lab:

Microscopy UK Lilies-close up!



8.  Photosynthesis

A. Photosynthesis: The chemical process by which a plant cell captures the energy in   sunlight and converts it to make simple sugars.
1. Chlorophyll = green pigment
2. Chloroplasts – cell organelle that contain this green pigment

3.  Absorb sunlight for this process

4.  Glucose (simple sugar) is produced during this process.  It acts as “food” for the plant.

B.  Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis:

C.  How does the water enter the roots?  Which process?

How does the CO2 enter the leaves?  How does O2 exit the leaves?

7.  Levels of Organization (in an organism)

Listed below are the different steps or levels of complexity of structures in an organism.  It is YOUR job to organize them, from the most basic and simple, to the largest and most complex structure.  10/18/17 HW:  Create a Graphic Organizer – that makes sense, and organizes these structures, from the most simple to the most complex.  These terms are NOT  in any order as they are listed below; they are listed in a random order. 

 The definitions are listed to help you to understand how to organize the structures.

Tissue: a group of similar cells that work together to perform a common function.

System:  a group of organs and tissues that work together to perform a major function.

Atom:  a unit of matter; the smallest unit of an element.

Cell:  the basic unit of structure and function in all living things; all living things are composed of cells.  Cells may be made up of more than one element, and may contain different compounds.

Organ: organs are composed of groups of tissues, that work and function together.  Organs may accomplish more than 1 task or more than 1 function.

Molecule:  a molecule is composed of atoms.  A molecule may be made up of 2 of the same atoms, like oxygen,   O2  , or a molecule may be made up of more than 1 type of atom, like glucose,   ‎C6H12O6  .

Body:  a full living thing, a multicellular organism, in it’s entire structure.  Composed of many different tissues, organs and systems.

Element: a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other types of substances by chemical changes.  

Subsystem:  a full system, which is also a part of a larger grouping, or complete systems.

Example 1:  the circulo-respiratory system included both the circulatory or heart system and also the respiratory or breathing system.     Example 2:  there are subsystems of function in different cells— so a cell could have a transport subsystem – that included all of the different organelles that function to transport substances throughout the cell.

Example of Graphic Organizer Charts – with Levels of Organization in Living Things:

Image result for levels of organization biology

6.  Cell Structures and Functions:

These structures are in your textbook…. listed below are descriptions of the cell organelles and also functions.

You can listen to this “Cell Rap” for cell functions in a fun way 🙂  Cell Rap! Cell S & F

Or Bill Nye, Cells!          Distributed by Disney Educational Productions

Or…. here is a terrific site with information and functions of the different cell structures:

Google.sites The Cell

A.  Cell Membrane: flexible lining of the cell

a. semi-permeable: (selectively permeable)

it only allows some materials to pass through it

b. diffusion and osmosis occur

1). diffusion: the movement of materials from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration   (crowded area to a less crowded area)

2) osmosis: diffusion of water

3)  Equilibrium: T a balance of molecules on either side of the membrane

The end-result of diffusion and osmosis

4)  Passive Transport: diffusion and osmosis do not require any energy

ex.:  Simple Diffusion video clip

ex.: Osmosis video clip

B.  Cell Wall: thick protective outer lining of the cell

1. function: strength and support

2. plant cells only

C.  Cytoplasm: gel-like substance in the cell

1. allows for movement of organelles

2. cushions organelles

3.  Reduces friction

D  Cytoskeleton

  1.  composed of microtubules
  2.  Provides shape for the cell
  3. Many organelles attach to the cytoskeleton
  4. Found throughout the cell

E.  Vacuoles:

1. storage compartments for food and water

2. water vacuoles

3. very large in plant cells

4. support for plant cells

F.  Nucleus: large central structure in cell

  1.  directs all cell’s activities/ organelles
  2.  control center of cell
  3. contains chromosomes:
  4. ( determine your traits and characteristics)                           
  5. made of  DNA.

G.  Nucleolus  –  located in the nucleus

  1.  responsible for making proteins

2.    make the ribosomes

H.  Chromosomes ( – Chromatin )

  1.  Made up of DNA, genetic material

2.  these determine an organism’s traits – the “code of life”

3.  located in the nucleus


  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum: tubular passageways
  1.  transports the ribosomes
  2.  helps produce proteins
  3.   A Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum  (rER ) – this just means that the ER has ribosomes on its’ surface

J.  Ribosomes:  (made of RNA- special proteins)

1. function: produce the cell’s proteins

2. carry a message (protein code)

3. travel along the endoplasmic reticulum

K.  Mitochondria:

1. function: produce energy for the cell,

2. breaking down sugars

L.  Chloroplasts:   (green structures inside plant cells)

1. trap sunlight to produce food (simple sugars) for the plant

2. photosynthesis: food-making process

M.  Lysosomes:

  1.  structures that break down cell wastes or old cell parts

2.  “recycle” cell parts

N.  Golgi Apparatus:

1. functions to transfer information:–

2. receive proteins

3.  package proteins

4.   distribute proteins

O.  Proteins!

(not an organelle –  a building block of cell structures)

  1.  Check out this site for details: UNC Proteins site
  2. “workers” of the cell
  3. have many roles, like cell repair, help with cell division, help move particles in and out of the cell, help the cell keep its shape
  4.  Enzymes

    enzymes are a special protein that help speed chemical reactions in cells

P.  Microtubules 

  1.  Microtubules are tube-like proteins that help give the cell structure
  2.  These help chromosomes move around the cell

Q.  Carbohydrates

(not an organelle –  a substance that cells take in and use)

  1.  cells use carbohydrates as its main source of energy
  2. cells also uses carbohydrates for its some activities and processes

R.  Lipids or Fats 

(not an organelle –  a substance that cells take in and use)

  1.  Lipids or fats have many roles
  2. Fats are broken down individual fatty acids and cholesterol molecules
  3. Cell membranes are surrounded by fat molecules or fatty acids
  4. Lipids or fats are an important source of energy for the cells

5.  Types of Experiments!

a.  Control:

  1. This experiment does not have any changes added.
  2. This is the experiment that all others are compared to
  3.  ex.:  think about the Flower Lab example we talked about in class.  The Control experiment was the flower placed only in water (no substances added).

b.  Independent Variable:

  1.  The changed factor that you want to test
  2.  The one change that is different from the control experiment.
  3.  Change only one independent variable at a time.
  4.  Equal amounts of the variable must be added
  5. ex.:  think about the Flower Lab example we talked about in class.  The Independent Variable were the different substances added to the flower’s water.

c.  Dependent Variable:

  1.  The measurable results
  2.  These may change in each trial

4.  Higher Level Thinking Questions:

Great questions to help you to study, asking questions that will help you to show that you understand everything about the microscope!  These question – starters should hep you to make up some study questions that give you a chance to study with more challenging questions, to help you to check if you really can understand, apply, analyze, and evaluate a microscope and how to use it correctly.   Here are 2 charts below to help you / partner form higher level questions:


3.  The Compound Light Microscope: 

A.  Diagram to Practice— you were to label your diagram by referring to a

Image result for Microscope Diagram not labeled

B. Microscope Safety & Guidelines
1.  Carry It Properly
Use 2 hands
By the arm and base
2.  Focusing a Microscope
Diaphragm on #1 (to start)
Use the Coarse Focus first
Start on low power objective
Start with the stage down; bring it up slowly
3.  Medium and High Power Objectives
First focus on low power
Next turn the objectives- using the nosepiece – to medium power: slowly
adjust using the fine focus
4.  When using the high power objective—fine focus only;
Turn diaphragm to #2 or #3
5.  Store the Microscope Correctly
Bring stage down slowly
Turn objective (use nosepiece) to low power
“Slide” slide off stage
Turn off light
Wrap up cord
Arm and nosepiece facing out
Cover (end of day)
6.  If You Have A Question—
Ask your partner
Raise your hand to ask a teacher; wait patiently

2.  S.T.E.M. = Science, Technology, Engineering & Math

Graphic Organizer Notes, Made with Word Clouds 9/14

STEM cognotes17

1.  Lab Safety:

{You wrote these notes on a “8-box”  paper.  The Lab Safety types are simply listed below on this blog format.  The lab safety types do not have to be in a specific order.}

 A.  Animal Safety

Handle with care

Keep them contained or caged

B.  Electrical Safety

Don’t overload outlets

Be careful with cords

(no water near outlets)

C.  “Sharps” Safety

Carry properly (points in palm, scalpels in a tray)

Use correctly – cut away

D.  Heat / Cold Safety

Use hot pads, protective gloves

Do not heat liquids in sealed containers (we discussed “why?” with higher order thinking questions)

E.  Glass Safety

Handle with care

Any chips on glass- tell a teacher

Use  2 hands!

F.  Eye & Face Safety

Wear goggles when using chemicals and fire

G.  Fire Safety

Respect what fire can do

No hairspray or hair near flames

H.  Chemical Safety

Do not ever mix chemicals (unless instructed to do so)

Do not taste, touch or smell chemicals (waft)



72 thoughts on “Notes for the Unit!

  1. i like the blog.

  2. Yeah, the blog is real neat. I like this one better than the other one.

  3. I think this one, it gives it more maturity than the other one

  4. Could you put up a finished diagram of all the cells?

    • Use your textbook … or use the cell website that I posted a couple of days ago, called “Cells Alive!” That should help. You can also do a Google search for labeled cell images – the more cells you look at, the better you will be at identifying important structures and organelles.

  5. What is the extocytosis’s funtion?
    A vacuole surrounding particules fuseses with the cell membrane
    Is that right Miss Kelly?

  6. There is more to the deffinition but i short handed it a bit

  7. Exocytosis – is a process, not a cell structure. Endo and exocytosis are cell processes in which the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs a particle in the area around the protist. For instance, and amoeba takes in food this way. Thanks for your question! 🙂

  8. When is the Study Game due? I would like to know so I can plan ahead.

  9. Your welcome Miss Kelly !
    Have a good afternoon ! 🙂

  10. Hannah the game is due AFTER THANKSGIVING 🙂

  11. Have a Happy Thanksgiving! 🙂

  12. i like the blog more than moodle

  13. what is a cell process

    • Merissa, the cell processes that you were responsible for learning about were on pages 28-35 and 40-48. Look back at my blog on Friday Nov. 22 (use the calendar).
      Thanks for your question.

  14. Since we didn’t take notes on Telophase and Cytokinesis yet, do we still have to make diagrams for those tonight?

    • yes, you should, … you read the section and you should have written a note or 2 on your Hamburger Frame. If you write it in pencil, you can always update the notes if you need to. 🙂
      Thanks for your question.

  15. Thanks for the youtube videos I really appreciate it

    I’m Not Short I’m Fun Size

  16. i realy like your blog mrs kelly

  17. this is the most awesome blog ever using it to do the notes for hw tonight

  18. love the blog Ms. Kelly

  19. Where is the physical properties and chemical properties notes?

  20. I was looking over my notes and I noticed that I didn’t understand what malleability meant. I looked up the definition but I was still confused.

  21. Cool blog Ms.Kelly! This one (I think) is better to use than the other one!

  22. What is our homework for March 6, 2014? I have Choral Festival so I won’t be in first hour.

  23. nice blog better than moodle

  24. This blog rocks!!

  25. What are examples of infrared rays

  26. Never mind i found it in my notes

  27. i cant find the rag website

  28. Hello Ms.Kelly i was wondering i have the homework for tonight written down in my Agenda and i put down Sticky note reading and i forgot sticky notes so can i just write them out on a piece of paper and put them on sticky notes tomorrow?

  29. I love the blog its awesome

  30. are the powerpoint notes on the blog???

  31. Yes, I copy my notes from my ppt. slides right onto the blog.

    Thanks for your question!

  32. Hello Ms.Kelly i cannot find the Video notes that we had for hw a couple of days ago. i was wondering if you could emai them to me or put them in your comment when you post back to me thank you so much again i need both of th videos that you sent to us also if you need my email (wich i doubt that you will) just let me know thank you so much

    Merissa Rockey.

  33. Is this all the notes? I thought there were more.

  34. Hi Ms. Kelly I am currently studying for the quiz tomorrow and I only see seven steps and I remember you saying there is eight, what would be the final one.

  35. Hi Ms. Kelly what is the website for the HW last night????

  36. This blog is AWESOME!!!!!

  37. where is the notes for the microscope because i can not find them.

  38. Hi Autumn, They are posted on the “Notes for the Unit” page on my Blog. I posted them after school. Thanks for asking 🙂

  39. hey Ms kelly love the blog best thing since sliced bread

  40. i love this blog alot

  41. you are welcome and it is the best thing since sliced bread

  42. nice

  43. About the Blog If there was a transverse wave coming in what would a tsunami wave be like like what type of wave? and if a tsunami hit grand haven how would it continue to move if there was stuff hitting it would the vibration be very strong?.

    • Ryan,

      Tsunamis are not like regular ocean or big lake waves, which are surface waves, caused by winds. Tsunamis are waves that move deep under the surface of the ocean, caused by earthquakes or other large disturbances. When tsunamis move towards a beach, the waves become compressed, their amplitude increases, and then the waves becomes really large and damaging. Another effect of tsunamis arriving is their trough often arrives first, which creates a vacuum effect, and the beach water is sucked out to sea before the crest pounds the beach. Check out these sites for more details: or

  44. can you post the nots

  45. Can you put a conclusion section on here? I forgot how too format a conclusion.

  46. how do you want the periodic table done?

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