7th Science Rocks!

Notes for the Unit!

Genetics & Heredity Unit!

VI.  Mutations

A.  structural changes in genes

  1. bases in the DNA are either missing, or added, or replaced (in the wrong place)
  2.   genes no longer make the intended protein

B. Sometimes mutations are hidden
1.  Sometimes they are apparent—->
2.  They might be beneficial (helpful)
3.  They might be harmful

C. Mutagen = anything in the environment which causes a change to DNA

  1.   Negative:  Radiation, X-Rays, soot from coal, UV radiation from the Sun (sunburns)
  2. Negative:  cigarette smoke (carcinogenic)

D.  Mutations —–> Positive

  1.   People live in the mountains of Tibet: higher  Oxygen carrying capacity in their blood
  2.  Pomegranates – more seeds (more fruit)


V.  Genetic Engineering:

1.   Key Terms!

 a.    Selective Breeding: a technique in which organisms with desired traits are chosen to be bred with one another (plants = cross-pollination) so that they will pass on those traits to their offspring.  

ex.:  Wolves were selectively bred: the gentler , more friendly wolves were bred  to become the more domesticated dogs

ex.:  Corn was originally a thin “ear” not very sweet, called Teosinte.  Cross -bred to make larger sweeter ears of corn

b.  G.M.O. = Genetically Modified Organisms:   an organism who’s genes have been intentionally changed or “improved” to change an organism’s traits.  Experimental organisms that have been genetically engineered.

c.  Organic Farming / Organic Crops:  Plants do not have any contact with man-made or synthetic chemicals, such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides when they are growing or in stores or markets for sale.  Organic crops do not contain any plants that are GMOs.    No antibiotics and synthetic hormone may be used on organic meat and poultry.

d.  Transgenic organisms =  Transgenic organisms are genetically modified (GMO).      They have an extra gene or genes inserted into their DNA.       The extra gene may come from the same species or from a different species. 

ex.: virus protein (gene) shot into the papaya chromosomes, so the papaya copies the new DNA segment;  that tree now is considered to be transgenic. 

e.  Bioengineering and Genetic Engineering:  ‘bio’ = the prefix means life.  To engineer— means to design and build, to question, to plan and imagine.  Bioengineering – and genetic engineering is using technology to change, design, create, improve the genes (DNA) of an organism.  Transgenic Organisms and GMOs are developed using bioengineering techniques.  Also called biotech, biotechnology.

f.  Gene Therapy = a technology used to transfer a healthy allele or a healthy gene to a person’s cells to treat a genetic disorder.  Usually, gene therapy requires the use and action of a virus to insert a healthy allele / gene into a cell.  




Plant Biotechnology                                                                                                                                                      More



A.  Conscious Consumtion | GMO Labeling

B.  Unknown-2

C.  Good Earth Natural Foods' Infographic in honor of Non-GMO Month.


D.  In the never ending debate about GMOs and GMO agriculture, the one voice that has often gone unheard are that of farmers. What do they have to say about it? Can GMOs be one of the key ingredients to the future of the planet?


E.  GMO Foods Info. This is a great website to understand the details about GMO, Organic foods, Hormones, Antibiotics and lots more about the food grown in our country.



IV. Chromosomes, Traits  and  Inheritance

A. Acquired Trait = those physical characteristics that are developed during a lifetime
1. Due to learning
ex.: a sports skill
2. Due to experiences in life
ex.: scars
ex.: large muscles due to weight training

B. Inherited Traits:
Those physical characteristics passed down from generation to generation (from parents to offspring)

{Next set of notes——> Fill In Blanks Notes}

C. Chromosomes
1.  Made up of DNA
2.  DNA carries the instruction how to make proteins
3.  23 pair (46) in the human body
4.  During Interphase- DNA & chromosomes located in the nucleus

Image result for Human Karyotype image

D. Gene
1.  Segment of DNA
2.  Location on a chromosome
3.  Contains instructions, controls traits

Image result for homologous pair of chromosomes

{The darkened bands on the diagram above are the genes on the chromosomes.}

E. Allele – a code, a form of a gene
1.  We represent these with letters
2.  Sometimes there are multiple alleles, sometimes a single allele codes for a trait

G.  Your Sample Chromosome Pair:  Traits —Genes:

     Widow’s peak / straight hairline (W or w )
     Bent pinkie / straight pinkie ( P or p )
     Clasping hands: left thumb on top; Clasping hands:right thumb on top ( T or t )              “Free” earlobes / “Attached” earlobes (E or e )
     Right handedness / left handedness ( H or h )
     Having dimples / no dimples ( D or d )
     2nd Toe is the longest / 1st Toe is the longest ( O or o )
     Nose shape: bump (“Roman nose”) / Straight nose ( N or n )


III.   Genetics : The Study of Genes and Their Traits

 A.  Heredity:   The Passing of traits from generation to generation, or parents                  .                          to offspring.

B.  Traits:  Physical characteristics – the way something appears 

C.  Inference:  A logical guess, based on scientific observations and prior knowledge

D.  Gregor Mendel: the “father of genetics”
1.  Used pea plants to study traits and experiment with genetics
2.  Pea plants produce a large number of offspring in one generation
3.  Easy to observe traits
4.  Pea traits: most traits have only two forms
a.  height: tall or short
b.  pod color yellow or green
c.  seed texture is wrinkled or smooth
5.  Ease of cross-breeding or cross-pollination:

D. Homozygous or Purebred:

1.   one that always produces offspring with the same form of the trait as the parent

2.   2 identical alleles 

3.  Ex: chocolate labs whose puppies are always chocolate colored (each generation is chocolate colored)

Image result for chocolate lab puppies image 

E. Heterozygous – Hybrid
1.  Offspring that have different alleles for the same trait
2.  Ex.:  Tt = heterozygous
     [tt = homozygous          TT = homozygous]

F. Alleles:    different forms of the same gene
1. Always 2 alleles in sexual reproduction (one from the female, one from the male)
2. The symbols for alleles are letters ( Tt, tt, TT )

G. Generation Names
1.   P1 = Parent or 1st Generation
2.   F1 = First Filial (son) Generation
3.   F2 = Second Filial Generation

Image result for crossing pea plants image

H. Phenotype:
1.  The outward appearance of an organism; traits that are observed
2.  % phenotype – means how many of the offspring exhibit this characteristic

{Ex.: pea plant traits = color of flowers, height of plants, color of pods,…}

I. Genotype:
1.  Genes or alleles that control the characteristics and traits; actual genetic make-up
2.  % Genotype: means how many of the offspring have these allele combinations

J. Dominant Trait
1.  the trait that always shows up whenever 1 dominant allele is present
2.  represented by capital letters
Tt or TT

K. Recessive Trait
1.  Recessive Trait: a trait that is masked or covered up whenever the dominant allele is present
2.  Represented by lower case letters
    Tt (appears tall) or tt (appears short)

L. Punnett Squares = a method used to show the cross between two organisms (♀ and ♂ ) and the trait that is studied

Image result for Punnett Square

1.   Punnett Square and Allele Practice (homozygous, heterozygous…)     Set up the problems and check your answers! 

Drag and Drop Genetics

2.  Punnett Square Interactive Sites and Other Genetic Cross Websites:

DragonFly TV Breeding Dogs & Genetics


3.  Bunny Genetics: Create Bunnies With the Correct Alleles

Furry Family Genetics Ohio Edu


4.  Punnett Square Practice – Interpreting the Offspring’s Alleles

Athro Punnett Square Examples


5.  Perform The Punnett Square Cross:  write your practice problem on paper and then check online

Punnett Square Crosses Glencoe



II.  Cell Cycle = The Life of a Cell

1.  Note: Interphase = Cell Growth (aqua arrow around circle)

Interphase = ~80-90% of a cell’s lifetime

2.  Mitosis = Cell Division

Mitosis = ~ 10% of a cell’s lifetime

3.  Cytokinesis = Cell Membrane (Plants=Cell Wall) pinches apart

Cytokinesis = ~2% of a cell’s lifetime

 I.  Sexual Vs Asexual Reproduction:

(create a Venn Diagram  for these notes— WordPress will not allow the transfer of  notes as a picture)

Sexual Reproduction

*2 parents
*2 sex cells = male and female
               sperm & egg
                 pollen  & egg
*offspring may appear different than parents
*combination of traits from parents
*larger gene pool
*more complex organisms
*multicellular organisms


Asexual Reproduction

*1 parent

*Cell Division = fission , mitosis

*offspring is a copy of the parent

*regeneration is a type of asexual reproduction

*unicellular organisms


1st Trimester Key Notes for the School Year

1.  Types of Experiments!

a.  Control:

  1. This experiment does not have any changes added.
  2. This is the experiment that all others are compared to
  3.  ex.:  think about the Flower Lab example we talked about in class.  The Control experiment was the flower placed only in water (no substances added).

b.  Independent Variable:

  1.  The changed factor that you want to test
  2.  The one change that is different from the control experiment.
  3.  Change only one independent variable at a time.
  4.  Equal amounts of the variable must be added
  5. ex.:  think about the Flower Lab example we talked about in class.  The Independent Variable were the different substances added to the flower’s water.

c.  Dependent Variable:

  1.  The measurable results
  2.  These may change in each trial

2.  Higher Level Thinking Questions:

Great questions to help you to study, asking questions that will help you to show that you understand everything about the microscope!  These question – starters should hep you to make up some study questions that give you a chance to study with more challenging questions, to help you to check if you really can understand, apply, analyze, and evaluate a microscope and how to use it correctly.   Here are 2 charts below to help you / partner form higher level questions:



3.  S.T.E.M. = Science, Technology, Engineering & Math

Graphic Organizer Notes, Made with Word Clouds 9/14

STEM cognotes17

4.  Lab Safety:

 A.  Animal Safety

Handle with care

Keep them contained or caged

B.  Electrical Safety

Don’t overload outlets

Be careful with cords

(no water near outlets)

C.  “Sharps” Safety

Carry properly (points in palm, scalpels in a tray)

Use correctly – cut away

D.  Heat / Cold Safety

Use hot pads, protective gloves

Do not heat liquids in sealed containers (we discussed “why?” with higher order thinking questions)

E.  Glass Safety

Handle with care

Any chips on glass- tell a teacher

Use  2 hands!

F.  Eye & Face Safety

Wear goggles when using chemicals and fire

G.  Fire Safety

Respect what fire can do

No hairspray or hair near flames

H.  Chemical Safety

Do not ever mix chemicals (unless instructed to do so)

Do not taste, touch or smell chemicals (waft)



72 thoughts on “Notes for the Unit!

  1. i like the blog.

  2. Yeah, the blog is real neat. I like this one better than the other one.

  3. I think this one, it gives it more maturity than the other one

  4. Could you put up a finished diagram of all the cells?

    • Use your textbook … or use the cell website that I posted a couple of days ago, called “Cells Alive!” That should help. You can also do a Google search for labeled cell images – the more cells you look at, the better you will be at identifying important structures and organelles.

  5. What is the extocytosis’s funtion?
    A vacuole surrounding particules fuseses with the cell membrane
    Is that right Miss Kelly?

  6. There is more to the deffinition but i short handed it a bit

  7. Exocytosis – is a process, not a cell structure. Endo and exocytosis are cell processes in which the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs a particle in the area around the protist. For instance, and amoeba takes in food this way. Thanks for your question! 🙂

  8. When is the Study Game due? I would like to know so I can plan ahead.

  9. Your welcome Miss Kelly !
    Have a good afternoon ! 🙂

  10. Hannah the game is due AFTER THANKSGIVING 🙂

  11. Have a Happy Thanksgiving! 🙂

  12. i like the blog more than moodle

  13. what is a cell process

    • Merissa, the cell processes that you were responsible for learning about were on pages 28-35 and 40-48. Look back at my blog on Friday Nov. 22 (use the calendar).
      Thanks for your question.

  14. Since we didn’t take notes on Telophase and Cytokinesis yet, do we still have to make diagrams for those tonight?

    • yes, you should, … you read the section and you should have written a note or 2 on your Hamburger Frame. If you write it in pencil, you can always update the notes if you need to. 🙂
      Thanks for your question.

  15. Thanks for the youtube videos I really appreciate it

    I’m Not Short I’m Fun Size

  16. i realy like your blog mrs kelly

  17. this is the most awesome blog ever using it to do the notes for hw tonight

  18. love the blog Ms. Kelly

  19. Where is the physical properties and chemical properties notes?

  20. I was looking over my notes and I noticed that I didn’t understand what malleability meant. I looked up the definition but I was still confused.

  21. Cool blog Ms.Kelly! This one (I think) is better to use than the other one!

  22. What is our homework for March 6, 2014? I have Choral Festival so I won’t be in first hour.

  23. nice blog better than moodle

  24. This blog rocks!!

  25. What are examples of infrared rays

  26. Never mind i found it in my notes

  27. i cant find the rag website

  28. Hello Ms.Kelly i was wondering i have the homework for tonight written down in my Agenda and i put down Sticky note reading and i forgot sticky notes so can i just write them out on a piece of paper and put them on sticky notes tomorrow?

  29. I love the blog its awesome

  30. are the powerpoint notes on the blog???

  31. Yes, I copy my notes from my ppt. slides right onto the blog.

    Thanks for your question!

  32. Hello Ms.Kelly i cannot find the Video notes that we had for hw a couple of days ago. i was wondering if you could emai them to me or put them in your comment when you post back to me thank you so much again i need both of th videos that you sent to us also if you need my email (wich i doubt that you will) just let me know thank you so much

    Merissa Rockey.

  33. Is this all the notes? I thought there were more.

  34. Hi Ms. Kelly I am currently studying for the quiz tomorrow and I only see seven steps and I remember you saying there is eight, what would be the final one.

  35. Hi Ms. Kelly what is the website for the HW last night????

  36. This blog is AWESOME!!!!!

  37. where is the notes for the microscope because i can not find them.

  38. Hi Autumn, They are posted on the “Notes for the Unit” page on my Blog. I posted them after school. Thanks for asking 🙂

  39. hey Ms kelly love the blog best thing since sliced bread

  40. i love this blog alot

  41. you are welcome and it is the best thing since sliced bread

  42. nice

  43. About the Blog If there was a transverse wave coming in what would a tsunami wave be like like what type of wave? and if a tsunami hit grand haven how would it continue to move if there was stuff hitting it would the vibration be very strong?.

    • Ryan,

      Tsunamis are not like regular ocean or big lake waves, which are surface waves, caused by winds. Tsunamis are waves that move deep under the surface of the ocean, caused by earthquakes or other large disturbances. When tsunamis move towards a beach, the waves become compressed, their amplitude increases, and then the waves becomes really large and damaging. Another effect of tsunamis arriving is their trough often arrives first, which creates a vacuum effect, and the beach water is sucked out to sea before the crest pounds the beach. Check out these sites for more details: or

  44. can you post the nots

  45. Can you put a conclusion section on here? I forgot how too format a conclusion.

  46. how do you want the periodic table done?

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