7th Science Rocks!

Notes for the Unit!


Renewable Energy, Conservation of Resources, Pollution:

Human Impact

I.  “Sustainability: Enough for all. Forever.”

-African Delegate to Johannesburg.

We discussed the above diagram, and you should be able to relate your Sustainability Projects to the “3 Legs” of Sustainability.

II.  Renewable  Energy … “is classified as energy that comes from resources like  the sun (solar), wind (wind turbines), geothermal (heating and cooling); Biomass fuels (algae) and Hydro (water) power,… that are constantly replenished

A.  Advantages  —Positives                   

  1. Infinity of sustainability – we will not run out of it
  2. It is clean energy – does not pollute as energy is produced
  3. Results in little to no greenhouse and net carbon emissions.
  4. It will not deplete our natural resources and have minimal negative impacts on the environment, with no waste products of Co2 and other, more toxic take with different sources of energy.
  5. Enables us to protect the environment from toxic pollutants, which in turn keep people healthier.
  6. Reliable energy source
  7. Solar and wind plants are distributed over large geographical area and weather disruptions in one area won’t cut off power to an entire region.
  8. Cheaper source of energy
  9. Jobs will be created


B.  Disadvantages

1.  Weather is not always reliable – so some types cannot be depended upon-
(Those energy types that rely on the weather conditions)
2.  May be difficult to generate in large quantity

3.  Large Capital cost (up front – building costs )

4. Large tracts of land may be required



Water Cycle:

A continuous process by which water moves from the Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back

Driven by energy from the Sun and gravity

I. Water Cycle – Fresh Water
A. Condensation: occurs when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid
1. Cooling temps cause this
2. Ex. Droplets of water on a cold can of Coke on a hot day
3. Air molecules are more compact, so they cannot hold H20

The Water Cycle USGS
B. Water Vapor: Evaporation
1. Water in a gaseous state
2. Summer temps – think “humidity”
3. Cold air cannot hold much water vapor
4. When water gains energy (from the sun) it escapes to the gas state – Phase Changes

C. Gravity
1. The force that attracts objects to one another
2. On Earth, we say we experience “1g force” on most places on Earth
3. the 2nd driving force of the water cycle- pulls precip. to Earth
4. Run-off moves downslope

D. Habitat
1. The place in which an organism lives
2. It contains all things that the organism needs to survive
3. Aquatic habitats = water-dwelling organisms

E. Freshwater Supply (see p. 6)
1. 97% of all water on Earth is salt water-oceans
2. 3% left = freshwater
a. ice (polar ice caps, glaciers)
b. groundwater
c. lakes, streams, rivers
d. water vapor

F. Groundwater
1. Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
2. Water table – level of water underground that has filled or saturated spaces
Groundwater – interactive site
Earth Guide Diagrams: Investigating Groundwater

G. Transpiration
1. Plants release water out of their leaves
2. Excess water diffuses out of the leaf cells

Image result for transpiration images

H. Precipitation
1. When water falls to the Earth (due to gravity)
2. Ex.: rain, snow, sleet, hail
3. The source of most freshwater above or below the surface of the Earth

I. Run-off
1. Whenever there is a slope of land, the water/precipitation will travel down that slope
2. Carries soil and other materials with it
3. Other materials = fertilizer, chemicals from the roads, road salt
4. Factors that determine how much water flows across the surface include:
The amount of water present
The moisture of the soil
The soil texture
The slope of the land
The vegetation

J. Aquifers
1. An underground layer of rock or sediment that holds water and allows it to flow
2. Ogallala Aquifer – huge aquifer in the Midwest, lying under 8 states
a. Provides water for irrigation of crops and livestock
. Related image

b.  Water for all the people

K. Permeable Layers – Infiltration
1. Rock or sediment layers that allow water to pass through
2. May be very porous (think=sponge) or have cracks, or it might slowly dissolve as water comes in contact with it (so H2O then will pass)
3. Stalactites/Stalagmites
form from water dripping

L. Impermeable Layers
1. Rock or sediment layers that do not allow water to pass through
Cement roads, parking lots, etc. add to a city’s impermeable areas– less groundwater recharge and more run-off with pollutants into streams, groundwater
M. Sublimation
1. When water in a solid state transforms into a gaseous state (not melting into a liquid first)

N. Groundwater Discharge
1. When/where groundwater will exit out of the ground
a. Sides of cliffs, into cave “rivers”
b. Man-made pumps and wells


II.  Watersheds- 

A.  Two simple videos to illustrate this important concept and related ideas:

B.   Surf Your Watershed – EPA

Find your watershed using the interactive form!!  Once you locate your watershed, click on the first link,  to find a list of organizations that are working to protect water quality. You may wish to contact one of these groups to find out about cleanups, monitoring activities, restoration projects and other activities— Excellent Challenge Activity!!

C.  Watersheds – Worksheet – Notes

  1.  Watersheds: The land area that supplies water to a river system.

          a.  Boundaries of a Watershed = Divide

            — the high ridge of land that separates one watershed from another.

            b.  Mountains, Ridges,  Bluffs, Large hills 

.           c.   The lowest points of watershed = large  lakes, rivers, valleys, low areas of land or water.

ex.:  this is where all the surface water runoff travels down to, carried by gravity

2.   The force of Gravity = how water travels on the Earth’s surface.

3.  Human Impact on Watersheds

      a.  Negative Impacts: The building of factories which may add pollutants to the groundwater; farmers adding excessive fertilizers to their fields which move into the different water systems.

b.  Mitigation – humans positively trying to “right the wrongs;” changing the negative impacts they have had on the environment

      –  Preserve watersheds (wetlands, rivers, other bodies of water);  cleaning up of the watersheds;  building green roofs;  adding rain gardens to reduce pollutants running off impervious surfaces  directly into sewers

III.  Clouds – Types 

UCAR Center for Science Ed: Cloud Types

Clouds – Types of Clouds  

(you should have written your own set of notes from online resources and your textbook, to make a graph/diagram of the different clouds, with a y-axis, showing altitude)

Latin: Strato: spread out

Cumulus: heap

Cirrus: a curl


Composition: ice crystals

Type of Precipitation: none

Appearance of Cloud: wispy and feathery; hair curls

Elevation: 12-13 km

2. Cirrocumulus

Composition: ice crystals

Type of Precipitation: none

Appearance of Cloud: small cotton balls shape, layered

Elevation: 7-9 km

3. Cirrostratus

Composition: ice crystals

Type of Precipitation: none

Appearance of Cloud: see through, smooth/transparent, ring around the sun

Elevation: 9-10 km

4. Altostratus

Composition: ice crystals and water vapor

Type of Precipitation: very light rain/snow

Appearance of Cloud: dense, gray layer. Evenly spread apart

Elevation: 5-6 km

5. Cumulonimbus

Composition: ice crystals (towards the top), water droplets

Type of Precipitation: heavy rain, snow, hail

Appearance of Cloud: heavy and dense; tall clouds, very dark

Elevation: 4-11 km

6. Altocumulus

Composition: Mostly water vapor; may contain ice crystals

Type of Precipitation: Indicates Precipitation

Appearance of Cloud: white/grey patch or layered clouds; rough fleecy cloud

Elevation: 6-8 km

7.  Stratocumulus

Composition: water vapor

Type of Precipitation: Occasional light rain, drizzle, or snow

Appearance of Cloud: covers all sky; dull grey color

Elevation: 3-5 km

8.  Cumulus

Composition: water vapor

Type of Precipitation: indicates good weather; drizzle

Appearance of Cloud: long, cotton ball; flat basis

Elevation: 2-4 km

9.  Nimbostratus

Composition: water vapor and ice crystals

Type of Precipitation: Heavy rain or snow; steady and prolonged

Appearance of Cloud: dark, dull grey color; thick, blanket

Elevation: 1-2 km

10. Stratus

Composition: water vapor

Type of Precipitation: light rain/snow

Appearance of Cloud: grey, lower layer clouds.

Elevation: 1-2 km

IV.  Air Masses and Fronts

A.  Types of Air Masses That Affect the United States / North America:

Source Region Identifiers:
  • A for Arctic,
  • P for Polar,
  • T for Tropical;

Moisture Content :
  • c for continental  (air  ~dry),
  • m for maritime ( moist air; mar= sea);

Air Temperature
relative to surface temperature  (air mass moving over this surface)
  • w for warm,
  • k for cold.

So……      cP = Continental polar  (dry, cold air)

……….      mT  = Tropical maritime  (warm/hot, moist air)

B.  A Front is the transition zone between two air masses of different densities

  1.  Cold Front:  cold, dense air mass pushes underneath the warm air mass;
  2. temp drops———> becomes cold!

Low pressure —— High pressure afterwards

Cold Front animation

2.  Warm Front: occurs when a less dense air mass catches up and moves over a more dense  (cold) air mass.

Temp —–> warms

pressure falling

Warm Front Animation

3.  Stationary Front = when the air masses on either side of the front are not moving toward each other.

4.  Occluded Front: when a cold front overtakes a warm front

form around areas of low pressure

In a cyclone or tornado: the cold front can rotate around a storm and catch a warm front.

V.   Compare/ Contrast Climate to Weather:

A.  Weather:

*Short term (day, week, month, year)

*Driven by Convection currents – in the air / oceans

*Smaller region (state, midwest, city)

B.  Climate:  

*Long Term (50-100 years +)

*Large area (country, continent, globe)

C.  Similarities:

Both – Describe the  Temperature and Precipitation

D.  Convection Currents

  1.  Low density air & water rises – hot fluids rise
  2.  High density air  & water sinks – cold fluids sink
  3.  Winds near the coast – beaches – are constant due to convection currents

Image result for the comet program convection currents globe

E.  Heating of the Atmosphere, Land and Oceans

1.  The temperature of the oceans affects the weather and climate on Earth
2.  Gulf Stream – the oceans transport warm waters up north

3.  Largest Ocean Current in the Northern Hemisphere

F.  Global Climate Change GCC-    {Graphic Organizer}

  1.  How Do Scientists Study Ancient Global Climate Change?
  2. Which Natural Activities Cause / Affect Climate Change?
  3. Which Human Activities Cause Global Climate Change?
  4. Methods to Limit Global Warming?
  5. Consequences of GCC?

G.  Relationship of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Amounts to Global Temperature Change

You should be able to explain this relationship shown on the graph (interpret the graph)

Global annual average temperature measured over land and oceans. Red bars indicate temperatures above and blue bars indicate temperatures below the 1901-2000 average temperature. The black line shows atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in parts per million.

National Climatic Data Center – NOAA

H.  Good Ozone, Bad Ozone:

  1.   Diagrams below illustrates that ozone belongs in the stratosphere…. to block out much of the Sun’s solar radiation.
  2. Automobile exhaust,  chemicals (VOC’s) from factories are emitted and cause a chemical reaction in the air, forming ozone (O3).
  3. “Bad Ozone”  a layer in the troposphere, that acts as a blanket, we call this smog.
  4. It does not allow the normal amount of heat to leave the surface of the Earth.
  5. This causes Global Heating.

IV. Ocean Currents
A. Surface Currents
1. May be 100’s of meters deep
2. Responsible for weather
Ex.: as the warmer waters move up the coast, air temperatures warm up

Ex.:If there is a cold front that moves through South Haven or Chicago, the cold Lake Michigan waters move “up the coast” — north to our beaches

3. Water carried with current (unlike waves)
4. Driven by wind patterns

B.  Ocean Gyres – ocean currents that move in circular patterns

1.  Curtis Ebbesmeyer – oceanographer recorded data

2.  “Ducks” and other items fell off cargo ships; people recorded where they were found

B. Coriolus  Effect
1. Surface currents are affected by this force; caused by the rotation of the Earth

Image result for coriolis effect images
2.  Results from Earth’s rotation causing freely moving objects to veer counter clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
3.  It affects things like wind, ocean currents, airplanes, missiles

D. Gulf Stream = Largest, most powerful surface current
Image result for gulf stream images
E. El Niño
Surface Currents event- characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

Image result for el nino images

F. La Niña
Ocean surface current event-
characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.

VI.  Lakes vs Ponds

large                                      size                   small

deep                                        depth                shallow

doesn’t reach bottom           sunlight           does reach bottom

many species, diff. sizes     diversity          less diverse

fewer amount of plants      vegetation       more plants throughout

cooler  (deeper)                  temperature    warmer  (more shallow)

VII.  Wetlands

  1.  An area that is covered with water during some or all of the year
  2.  Types of wetlands
    Swamps (more trees, woody plants)
    Marshes (more grassy, herbaceous plants)
  3.  Bogs (pond/lake has filled in)  – Eutrophication
  4. Edges: – bayous – edge of a river;  pond edges may be marshy

VIII.  The Water Table

A.  Water Table —

  1.  Rises and falls with increases / decreases in precipitation and runoff present
  2. Infiltration occurs and water moves down due to gravity and spaces between  soil and rocks

B.  Permeable Soil Increases the Saturation level

Diagram of how groundwater occurs underground.

IX.  Layers of the Atmosphere

A.  Note the Objects in Each Layer of the Atmosphere  (natural and man-made)

1.  Weather, mountains, skyscrapers, clouds, parachuters, hot air balloons in the Troposphere

2.  Ozone Layer – Stratosphere

3.  Auroras –  Thermosphere

B.  Note Temperature Trends

C.  Gasses in Our Atmosphere – Composition

— you should be able to interpret this graph set!

Graphs of the overall atmospheric concentration and the relative percentages of trace gases.

72 thoughts on “Notes for the Unit!

  1. i like the blog.

  2. Yeah, the blog is real neat. I like this one better than the other one.

  3. I think this one, it gives it more maturity than the other one

  4. Could you put up a finished diagram of all the cells?

    • Use your textbook … or use the cell website that I posted a couple of days ago, called “Cells Alive!” That should help. You can also do a Google search for labeled cell images – the more cells you look at, the better you will be at identifying important structures and organelles.

  5. What is the extocytosis’s funtion?
    A vacuole surrounding particules fuseses with the cell membrane
    Is that right Miss Kelly?

  6. There is more to the deffinition but i short handed it a bit

  7. Exocytosis – is a process, not a cell structure. Endo and exocytosis are cell processes in which the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs a particle in the area around the protist. For instance, and amoeba takes in food this way. Thanks for your question! 🙂

  8. When is the Study Game due? I would like to know so I can plan ahead.

  9. Your welcome Miss Kelly !
    Have a good afternoon ! 🙂

  10. Hannah the game is due AFTER THANKSGIVING 🙂

  11. Have a Happy Thanksgiving! 🙂

  12. i like the blog more than moodle

  13. what is a cell process

    • Merissa, the cell processes that you were responsible for learning about were on pages 28-35 and 40-48. Look back at my blog on Friday Nov. 22 (use the calendar).
      Thanks for your question.

  14. Since we didn’t take notes on Telophase and Cytokinesis yet, do we still have to make diagrams for those tonight?

    • yes, you should, … you read the section and you should have written a note or 2 on your Hamburger Frame. If you write it in pencil, you can always update the notes if you need to. 🙂
      Thanks for your question.

  15. Thanks for the youtube videos I really appreciate it

    I’m Not Short I’m Fun Size

  16. i realy like your blog mrs kelly

  17. this is the most awesome blog ever using it to do the notes for hw tonight

  18. love the blog Ms. Kelly

  19. Where is the physical properties and chemical properties notes?

  20. I was looking over my notes and I noticed that I didn’t understand what malleability meant. I looked up the definition but I was still confused.

  21. Cool blog Ms.Kelly! This one (I think) is better to use than the other one!

  22. What is our homework for March 6, 2014? I have Choral Festival so I won’t be in first hour.

  23. nice blog better than moodle

  24. This blog rocks!!

  25. What are examples of infrared rays

  26. Never mind i found it in my notes

  27. i cant find the rag website

  28. Hello Ms.Kelly i was wondering i have the homework for tonight written down in my Agenda and i put down Sticky note reading and i forgot sticky notes so can i just write them out on a piece of paper and put them on sticky notes tomorrow?

  29. I love the blog its awesome

  30. are the powerpoint notes on the blog???

  31. Yes, I copy my notes from my ppt. slides right onto the blog.

    Thanks for your question!

  32. Hello Ms.Kelly i cannot find the Video notes that we had for hw a couple of days ago. i was wondering if you could emai them to me or put them in your comment when you post back to me thank you so much again i need both of th videos that you sent to us also if you need my email (wich i doubt that you will) just let me know thank you so much

    Merissa Rockey.

  33. Is this all the notes? I thought there were more.

  34. Hi Ms. Kelly I am currently studying for the quiz tomorrow and I only see seven steps and I remember you saying there is eight, what would be the final one.

  35. Hi Ms. Kelly what is the website for the HW last night????

  36. This blog is AWESOME!!!!!

  37. where is the notes for the microscope because i can not find them.

  38. Hi Autumn, They are posted on the “Notes for the Unit” page on my Blog. I posted them after school. Thanks for asking 🙂

  39. hey Ms kelly love the blog best thing since sliced bread

  40. i love this blog alot

  41. you are welcome and it is the best thing since sliced bread

  42. nice

  43. About the Blog If there was a transverse wave coming in what would a tsunami wave be like like what type of wave? and if a tsunami hit grand haven how would it continue to move if there was stuff hitting it would the vibration be very strong?.

    • Ryan,

      Tsunamis are not like regular ocean or big lake waves, which are surface waves, caused by winds. Tsunamis are waves that move deep under the surface of the ocean, caused by earthquakes or other large disturbances. When tsunamis move towards a beach, the waves become compressed, their amplitude increases, and then the waves becomes really large and damaging. Another effect of tsunamis arriving is their trough often arrives first, which creates a vacuum effect, and the beach water is sucked out to sea before the crest pounds the beach. Check out these sites for more details: or

  44. can you post the nots

  45. Can you put a conclusion section on here? I forgot how too format a conclusion.

  46. how do you want the periodic table done?

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